Dash Core

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Dash chain reorganization and 51% attack protection

Dash's ChainLockChainLock - ChainLocks are a feature enabling near instant consensus on the valid chain. ChainLocks use Long-Living Masternode Quroums to mitigate 51 percent attacks and reduce uncertainty when receiving funds. feature leverages LLMQLLMQ - Long-Living Masternode Quorums (LLMQs) are a Dash innovation that enable masternodes to perform threshold signing of consensus-related messages (e.g. InstantSend transactions). LLMQs provide a more scalable, general use quorum system than the ephemeral ones used prior to Dash Core version 0.14. Signing Requests/Sessions to reduce uncertainty when receiving funds and remove the possibility of 51% mining attacks.

For each block, an LLMQ of a few hundred masternodesmasternodes - A computer that provides second-tier Dash functionality (InstantSend, PrivateSend, decentralized governance). Masternodes are incentivized by receiving part of the block reward, but must hold 1000 Dash as collateral to prevent sybil attacks. (300-400) is selected and each participating member signs the first blockblock - One or more transactions prefaced by a block header and protected by proof of work. Blocks are the data stored on the block chain. that it sees extending the active chain at the current block heightblock height - The number of blocks preceding a particular block on a block chain. For example, the genesis block has a height of zero because zero block preceded it.. If enough members (at least 240) see the same block as the first block, they will be able to create a clsig message and propagate it to all nodesnodes - A computer that connects to the Dash network. in the networknetwork - The Dash P2P network which broadcasts transactions and blocks..

If a valid clsig message is received by a node, it must reject all blocks (and any descendants) at the same height that do not match the block specified in the clsig message. This makes the decision on the active chain quick, easy and unambiguous. It also makes reorganizations below this block impossible.

With LLMQ-based InstantSendInstantSend - InstantSend is a service that allows for near-instant transactions. Through this system, inputs can be locked to specific transactions and verified by consensus of the masternode network., a ChainLock is only attempted once all transactionstransactions - A transaction spending satoshis. in the block are locked via InstantSend. If a block contains unlocked transactions, retroactive InstantSend locks are established prior to a ChainLock.

ChainLocks have been active on the Dash network since block 1088640 in June of 2019. Please read DIP8 ChainLocks for additional details.

Updated 5 months ago

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Dash chain reorganization and 51% attack protection

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