P2SH Multisig

In this subsection, we will create a P2SH multisig address, spend duffs to it, and then spend those duffs from it to another address.

Creating a multisig address is easy. Multisig outputs have two parameters, the minimum number of signatures required (m) and the number of public keys to use to validate those signatures. This is called m-of-n, and in this case we'll be using 2-of-3.

1. Get new addresses

Generate three new P2PKH addresses. A P2PKH address cannot be used with the multisig redeem script created below. (Hashing each public key is unnecessary anyway---all the public keys are protected by a hash when the redeem script is hashed.) However, Dash Core uses addresses as a way to reference the underlying full (unhashed) public keys it knows about, so we get the three new addresses above in order to use their public keys.

Recall from the Guide that the hashed public keys used in addresses obfuscate the full public key, so you cannot give an address to another person or device as part of creating a typical multisig output or P2SH multisig redeem script. You must give them a full public key.

    > dash-cli -regtest getnewaddress
    yYtWtpW7akCc2a5En8NsXeTGENyYbNgv9q
    > dash-cli -regtest getnewaddress
    yarm2x9eDFd9dKCycyPigwwj1vfJcYFxsH
    > dash-cli -regtest getnewaddress
    yLknHbtnjJRVWQr78aTfCPfNB42jfNkDWK

    > NEW_ADDRESS1=yYtWtpW7akCc2a5En8NsXeTGENyYbNgv9q
    > NEW_ADDRESS2=yarm2x9eDFd9dKCycyPigwwj1vfJcYFxsH
    > NEW_ADDRESS3=yLknHbtnjJRVWQr78aTfCPfNB42jfNkDWK

2. Get public key

Use the getaddressinfo RPC to display the full (unhashed) public key for the addresses. This is the information which will actually be included in the multisig redeem script. This is also the information you would give another person or device as part of creating a multisig output or P2SH multisig redeem script.

We save the address returned to a shell variable.

> dash-cli -regtest getaddressinfo $NEW_ADDRESS3
{
  "address": "yLknHbtnjJRVWQr78aTfCPfNB42jfNkDWK",
  "scriptPubKey": "76a91404caa000366b99780f8e606ccc818883ca7f48f888ac",
  "ismine": true,
  "solvable": true,
  "iswatchonly": false,
  "isscript": false,
  "pubkey": "038007ef6fd812d73da054271b68a42dae06672cff2a30b2814935537e5930ebf6",
  "iscompressed": true,
  "label": "",
  "ischange": false,
}


> NEW_ADDRESS3_PUBLIC_KEY=038007ef6fd812d73da054271b68a42dae0667[...]

3. Create multisig address

Use the createmultisig RPC with two arguments, the number (n) of signatures required and a list of public keys. The P2SH address is returned along with the redeem script which must be provided when we spend duffs sent to the P2SH address.

❗️

Redeem Script

Warning: You must not lose the redeem script, especially if you don't have a record of which public keys you used to create the P2SH multisig address. You need the redeem script to spend any dash sent to the P2SH address.

If you lose the redeem script, you can recreate it by running the same command above, with the public keys listed in the same order. However, if you lose both the redeem script and even one of the public keys, you will never be able to spend duffs sent to that P2SH address.

Neither the address nor the redeem script are stored in the wallet when you use createmultisig. To store them in the wallet, use the addmultisigaddress RPC instead. If you add an address to the wallet, you should also make a new backup.

> dash-cli -regtest createmultisig 2 '''
    [
      "'$NEW_ADDRESS1_PUBLIC_KEY'",
      "'$NEW_ADDRESS2_PUBLIC_KEY'",
      "'$NEW_ADDRESS3_PUBLIC_KEY'"
    ]'''
{
  "address": "8meEZF54K7GxhHhdLCCeNwFQjHENv4CK86",
  "redeemScript": "522103fa8866cccae3c975a72884443a351801a0ea9721cbe721558\
                  6ddd6fab5f39f262103b2259f42a241f4870e794521594f2af7aadf0\
                  e4c580a43582e58630e4618634621038007ef6fd812d73da054271b6\
                  8a42dae06672cff2a30b2814935537e5930ebf653ae"
}

> P2SH_ADDRESS=8meEZF54K7GxhHhdLCCeNwFQjHENv4CK86
> P2SH_REDEEM_SCRIPT=522103fa8866cccae3c975a72884443a351801a0ea9[...]

4. Fund multisig address

Paying the P2SH multisig address with Dash Core is as simple as paying a more common P2PKH address. Here we use the same command (but different variable) we used in the Simple Spending subsection. As before, this command automatically selects an UTXO, creates a change output to a new one of our P2PKH addresses if necessary, and pays a transaction fee if necessary.

We save that TXID to a shell variable as the TXID of the UTXO we plan to spend next.

> dash-cli -regtest sendtoaddress $P2SH_ADDRESS 10.00
ddb2a2eb2402a9ae61d7db93a9a48c0747859d899e704b10f5b72145779f9c52

> UTXO_TXID=ddb2a2eb2402a9ae61d7db93a9a48c0747859d899e704b10f5b7[...]

5. Get decoded transaction

We use the getrawtransaction RPC with the optional second argument (true) to get the decoded transaction we just created with sendtoaddress. We choose one of the outputs (the multisig address one) to be our UTXO and get its output index number (vout) and pubkey script (scriptPubKey).

> dash-cli -regtest getrawtransaction $UTXO_TXID 1
{
  "hex": "010000000130d100f7762956100a2396403c60e13e7a13520167acc6d38978ec\
          33ada44cf8010000006b48304502210084effe3132550e6ba43a7f4cc54ad30d\
          001c0dbc3ea66d638e5f3d6039a28c2b022044c8cd89cf455b8650fe259306eb\
          2a30b0112969717e469a722bca0263e0975d01210324c2226564b19f0948306b\
          b7160a735c28001bbd046cd46059df9f8434f41254feffffff0200ca9a3b0000\
          000017a9144f334f26e350c8903c92ff25b733670902cfad5a8700e0052d0b00\
          00001976a91479165c2155b8fec5c702ec7f251d0982f27b402988ac67000000",
  "txid": "ddb2a2eb2402a9ae61d7db93a9a48c0747859d899e704b10f5b72145779f9c52",
  "size": 224,
  "version": 1,
  "locktime": 103,
  "vin": [
    {
      "txid": "f84ca4ad33ec7889d3c6ac670152137a3ee1603c4096230a10562976f70\
                0d130",
      "vout": 1,
      "scriptSig": {
        "asm": "304502210084effe3132550e6ba43a7f4cc54ad30d001c0dbc3ea66d63\
                8e5f3d6039a28c2b022044c8cd89cf455b8650fe259306eb2a30b01129\
                69717e469a722bca0263e0975d[ALL] 0324c2226564b19f0948306bb7\
                160a735c28001bbd046cd46059df9f8434f41254",
        "hex": "48304502210084effe3132550e6ba43a7f4cc54ad30d001c0dbc3ea66d\
                638e5f3d6039a28c2b022044c8cd89cf455b8650fe259306eb2a30b011\
                2969717e469a722bca0263e0975d01210324c2226564b19f0948306bb7\
                160a735c28001bbd046cd46059df9f8434f41254"
      },
      "sequence": 4294967294
    }
  ],
  "vout": [
    {
      "value": 10.00000000,
      "valueSat": 1000000000,
      "n": 0,
      "scriptPubKey": {
        "asm": "OP_HASH160 4f334f26e350c8903c92ff25b733670902cfad5a OP_EQUAL",
        "hex": "a9144f334f26e350c8903c92ff25b733670902cfad5a87",
        "reqSigs": 1,
        "type": "scripthash",
        "addresses": [
          "8meEZF54K7GxhHhdLCCeNwFQjHENv4CK86"
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      "value": 480.00000000,
      "valueSat": 48000000000,
      "n": 1,
      "scriptPubKey": {
        "asm": "OP_DUP OP_HASH160 79165c2155b8fec5c702ec7f251d0982f27b4029\
                OP_EQUALVERIFY OP_CHECKSIG",
        "hex": "76a91479165c2155b8fec5c702ec7f251d0982f27b402988ac",
        "reqSigs": 1,
        "type": "pubkeyhash",
        "addresses": [
          "yXMhQ1L5q3PcnJgEhyAFztQPPRaEr8Mh8s"
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

> UTXO_VOUT=0
> UTXO_OUTPUT_SCRIPT=a9144f334f26e350c8903c92ff25b733670902cfad5a87

6. Get new address

We generate a new P2PKH address to use in the output we're about to create.

> dash-cli -regtest getnewaddress
yZSxAakpoWGG3vcsvpk9qNtsYREhump4Cr

> NEW_ADDRESS4=yZSxAakpoWGG3vcsvpk9qNtsYREhump4Cr

7. Create raw transaction

We generate the raw transaction the same way we did in the Simple Raw Transaction subsection.

## Outputs - inputs = transaction fee, so always double-check your math!
> dash-cli -regtest createrawtransaction '''
    [
      {
        "txid": "'$UTXO_TXID'",
        "vout": '$UTXO_VOUT'
      }
   ]
   ''' '''
   {
     "'$NEW_ADDRESS4'": 9.998
   }'''

0100000001529c9f774521b7f5104b709e899d8547078ca4a993dbd761aea902\
24eba2b2dd0000000000ffffffff01c0bc973b000000001976a914900504f96c\
55d6ebe1c33581ba9430ca05b12a1488ac00000000

010000000175e1769813db8418fea17576694af1ff31cb2b512b7333e6eb42f0\
30d0d778720000000000ffffffff01c0bc973b000000001976a914b6f64f5bf3\
e38f25ead28817df7929c06fe847ee88ac00000000

> RAW_TX=0100000001529c9f774521b7f5104b709e899d8547078ca4a993dbd[...]

8. Get private key

We get the private keys for two of the public keys we used to create the transaction, the same way we got private keys in the Complex Raw Transaction subsection. Recall that we created a 2-of-3 multisig pubkey script, so signatures from two private keys are needed.

❗️

Private Key Warning

Reminder: Users should never manually manage private keys on mainnet. See the warning in the complex raw transaction section.

> dash-cli -regtest dumpprivkey $NEW_ADDRESS1
cThhxbQUtBDzHZbZrW6XAR4XkXfaQf4Abo7BQaTK2zVp7sVrHdmv
> dash-cli -regtest dumpprivkey $NEW_ADDRESS3
cUbYymPeHhRszTn64Xg7dzYKez8YC83M39ZTPJDiBDu8dRD3EjzF

> NEW_ADDRESS1_PRIVATE_KEY=cThhxbQUtBDzHZbZrW6XAR4XkXfaQf4Abo7BQ[...]
> NEW_ADDRESS3_PRIVATE_KEY=cUbYymPeHhRszTn64Xg7dzYKez8YC83M39ZTP[...]

9. Sign raw transaction

9a. Private Key 1

We make the first signature. The input argument (JSON object) takes the additional redeem script parameter so that it can append the redeem script to the signature script after the two signatures.

> dash-cli -regtest signrawtransactionwithkey $RAW_TX '''
    [
      "'$NEW_ADDRESS1_PRIVATE_KEY'"
    ]''' '''
    [
      {
        "txid": "'$UTXO_TXID'",
        "vout": '$UTXO_VOUT',
        "scriptPubKey": "'$UTXO_OUTPUT_SCRIPT'",
        "redeemScript": "'$P2SH_REDEEM_SCRIPT'"
      }
    ]
    '''
{
  "hex": "0100000001529c9f774521b7f5104b709e899d8547078ca4a993dbd761aea902\
          24eba2b2dd00000000b40047304402201cc50eac6d2db04dabd8ccd68b3116c0\
          a8d37e7e41335e0d0ab441a5aa08cdcd02204011d184dca2489758c05e01556f\
          f2ff9c48c39ff434fdfb1d9e0284fbde7701014c69522103fa8866cccae3c975\
          a72884443a351801a0ea9721cbe7215586ddd6fab5f39f262103b2259f42a241\
          f4870e794521594f2af7aadf0e4c580a43582e58630e4618634621038007ef6f\
          d812d73da054271b68a42dae06672cff2a30b2814935537e5930ebf653aeffff\
          ffff01c0bc973b000000001976a914900504f96c55d6ebe1c33581ba9430ca05\
          b12a1488ac00000000",
  "complete": false,
  "errors": [
    {
      "txid": "ddb2a2eb2402a9ae61d7db93a9a48c0747859d899e704b10f5b72145779\
                f9c52",
      "vout": 0,
      "scriptSig": "0047304402201cc50eac6d2db04dabd8ccd68b3116c0a8d37e7e41\
                    335e0d0ab441a5aa08cdcd02204011d184dca2489758c05e01556f\
                    f2ff9c48c39ff434fdfb1d9e0284fbde7701014c69522103fa8866\
                    cccae3c975a72884443a351801a0ea9721cbe7215586ddd6fab5f3\
                    9f262103b2259f42a241f4870e794521594f2af7aadf0e4c580a43\
                    582e58630e4618634621038007ef6fd812d73da054271b68a42dae\
                    06672cff2a30b2814935537e5930ebf653ae",
      "sequence": 4294967295,
      "error": "Signature must be zero for failed CHECK(MULTI)SIG operation"
    }
  ]
}

> PARTLY_SIGNED_RAW_TX=010000000175e1769813db8418fea17576694af1f[...]

9b. Private Key 3

The signrawtransactionwithkey call used here is nearly identical to the one used above. The only difference is the private key used. Now that the two required signatures have been provided, the transaction is marked as complete.

> dash-cli -regtest signrawtransactionwithkey $PARTLY_SIGNED_RAW_TX '''
    [
      "'$NEW_ADDRESS3_PRIVATE_KEY'"
    ]''' '''
    [
      {
        "txid": "'$UTXO_TXID'",
        "vout": '$UTXO_VOUT',
        "scriptPubKey": "'$UTXO_OUTPUT_SCRIPT'",
        "redeemScript": "'$P2SH_REDEEM_SCRIPT'"
      }
    ]
    '''
{
  "hex": "0100000001529c9f774521b7f5104b709e899d8547078ca4a993dbd761aea902\
          24eba2b2dd00000000fdfd000047304402201cc50eac6d2db04dabd8ccd68b31\
          16c0a8d37e7e41335e0d0ab441a5aa08cdcd02204011d184dca2489758c05e01\
          556ff2ff9c48c39ff434fdfb1d9e0284fbde770101483045022100e0e1f95f1a\
          b85814ee0920d5bd28c6831086e838af4bec344fd8654a0b58525f022075989f\
          d3a677e1522aa85d45c41720aec9e7c127acadb6c14338c3b1a768ab28014c69\
          522103fa8866cccae3c975a72884443a351801a0ea9721cbe7215586ddd6fab5\
          f39f262103b2259f42a241f4870e794521594f2af7aadf0e4c580a43582e5863\
          0e4618634621038007ef6fd812d73da054271b68a42dae06672cff2a30b28149\
          35537e5930ebf653aeffffffff01c0bc973b000000001976a914900504f96c55\
          d6ebe1c33581ba9430ca05b12a1488ac00000000",
  "complete": true
}

> SIGNED_RAW_TX=0100000001529c9f774521b7f5104b709e899d8547078ca4[...]

10. Send raw transaction

We send the transaction spending the P2SH multisig output to the local node, which accepts it.

> dash-cli -regtest sendrawtransaction $SIGNED_RAW_TX
483061b32894aacf6c4050291252a480c2a4c869eb85bd45082fb87d6b175ae8

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